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Exploring the Benefits of Wide-Area Monitoring and Protection Scheme for Power Grids

Exploring the Benefits of Wide-Area Monitoring and Protection Scheme for Power Grids


Challenges facing power system protection in a wide-area system are latency and full coverage of a wide-areadisturbance. The complexity of large-scale power system configurations has led to challenges in the design of coordination andoperating systems for protection relays. Local measurements used for primary and backup protection cannot consider widesystem disturbances. A new wide-area-monitoring-system-based primary protection is presented for a complex power systeminvolving double and single lines. It is based on describing the non-linear dynamic operation of the transmission lines during afault in the form of a set of differential equations that are solved through paths movements in a phase diagram. The fault on thelines can be precisely recognised. The speed of the traditional communication media limits wide-area monitoring as backupprotection. This study presents the primary protection scheme for double and single circuits in a wide area for the first timebased on fourth-generation technology with low latency. The justification for applying the proposed scheme as primaryprotection in a wide-area-monitoring system is discussed. The number of relays on the studied configuration is reduced from 18local relays to only 5 phasor measurement units for protecting the lines in the area.

The main idea of the article is:

  • To propose a novel primary protection scheme for wide-area disturbances based on phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fourth-generation (4G) communication technology.

  • To use a new concept called phase diagram to describe the non-linear dynamic operation of the transmission lines and to identify the fault location and type.

  • To reduce the number of relays and the latency time compared to traditional distance relays and to improve the reliability and security of the protection system.

What is pmu?

Here’s how it works:

How is PMU different from SCADA?

  1. Sampling Rate: PMUs provide up to 60 measurements per second, which is much more than the typical one measurement every 2 to 4 seconds provided by conventional SCADA systems4. This high sampling rate allows PMUs to capture rapid changes in the power system that might be missed by SCADA.

  2. Precision: PMUs are generally more precise than SCADA systems. This is because PMUs measure the magnitude and phase angle of voltage and current waveforms, which provides a more detailed view of the power system’s state.

  3. Time Synchronization: All PMU data is time-stamped using Global Positioning System (GPS) data4. This allows for accurate time synchronization across a wide geographic grid, which is not typically a feature of SCADA systems.

  4. Data Types: Traditional SCADA systems do not include voltage angle measurements, which are crucial for understanding the dynamic properties of power systems. PMUs, on the other hand, do measure voltage angles.

  5. Coverage: While PMUs provide valuable data, it’s hard to replace SCADA on all buses in the near future due to the large number of traditional SCADA measurements5. Therefore, many power systems use a combination of SCADA and PMU data.

In the context of power systems, a phase diagram is a graphical representation of the phase relationships between different quantities in the system. It’s a tool used to visualize and understand the behavior of the system under different conditions.

In the research article you mentioned, the phase diagram is used to describe the non-linear dynamic operation of transmission lines during a fault. The phase diagram represents the system’s state in terms of differential equations, which are solved through paths movements in the phase diagram. This allows for precise recognition of faults on the lines.

It’s important to note that the concept of phase diagrams and phase rotation can be complex and requires a deep understanding of power systems. If you’re interested in learning more, I recommend studying power systems or consulting with a power systems engineer.

Phase rotation, or phase sequence, is the order of voltage waveform sequences in a polyphase system. It’s an important aspect of power systems, especially when connecting two systems together.

Therefore, it’s crucial to ensure correct phase rotation when designing and operating power systems to prevent equipment damage and maintain system stability.


How do I determine the phase rotation of my power supply?

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